MARY KINGSLEY UNTER KANNIBALEN. trifft die behütete viktorianische Lady Mary Kingsley einen folgenschweren Entschluss. Als ihr Vater, ein Arzt und. Online-Einkauf von Bücher aus großartigem Angebot von Musik, Fotografie, Bühne, Grafikdesign, Architektur, Geschichte & Kritik und mehr zu dauerhaft. trifft die behütete viktorianische Lady Mary Kingsley einen folgenschweren Entschluss. Als ihr Vater, ein Arzt und Teilzeit-Völkerkundler, stirbt und auch die.
Mary KingsleyMary Kingsley möchte Fische studieren und die religiösen Bräuche der Eingeborenen. Dafür reist sie mit 30 Jahren allein an die Westküste Afrikas. Sie forscht. trifft die behütete viktorianische Lady Mary Kingsley einen folgenschweren Entschluss. Als ihr Vater, ein Arzt und Teilzeit-Völkerkundler, stirbt und auch die. Online-Einkauf von Bücher aus großartigem Angebot von Musik, Fotografie, Bühne, Grafikdesign, Architektur, Geschichte & Kritik und mehr zu dauerhaft.
Mary Kingsley Film Navigation menu VideoF’s Mary Kingsley movie Ganz nebenbei wird Mary Kingsley heute auch als Pionierin der Frauenbefreiung verehrt. Der Film stellt das Lebenswerk von Lady Mary. Zum Inhalt des Films: England, Mitte des Jahrhunderts: Der junge Oliver Twist (Barney Clark) wächst in ärmlichsten Verhältnissen und ohne Wärme und. Mary Henrietta Kingsley (* Oktober in Islington; † 3. Juni in Simon's Town, Südafrika) war eine britische Forschungsreisende, Ethnologin. Online-Einkauf von Bücher aus großartigem Angebot von Musik, Fotografie, Bühne, Grafikdesign, Architektur, Geschichte & Kritik und mehr zu dauerhaft.
Berlin Tag Nacht ist wesentlich gnstiger zu produzieren als Big Brother und erzielt momentan sogar ungefhr die Mary Kingsley Film Einschaltquoten. - TROPIC FEVERHer father, a doctor and pasttime ethnologist, had just dies, Luxus-Music.In her mother passed away only Weihnachtsfilme Tv 2021 few weeks later.
In , students Martin Brice 27 and Cosmo 24 are sneakers who hack into computer networks using university equipment, to redistribute conservative funds to various liberal causes.
The police burst in and arrest Cosmo while Martin is out getting pizza; Martin becomes a fugitive. In the present day San Francisco, Martin, now called Martin Bishop, heads a security specialists team undertaking penetration testing.
The team includes Donald Crease, a former CIA officer and family man; Darren "Mother" Roskow, a conspiracy theorist and electronics technician; Carl Arbogast, a young hacking genius; and Irwin "Whistler" Emery, a blind phone phreak.
After breaking into a bank and exposing their weaknesses, Martin is approached by NSA officers Dick Gordon and Buddy Wallace, who know of his former identity.
In exchange for clearing his record, he is asked to recover a "black box" from mathematician Dr. Gunter Janek, who has developed the box under the project name "Setec Astronomy" supposedly for the Russian government.
Martin is hesitant but agrees to help. With help from his former girlfriend, Liz, Martin and his team secure the box, which is disguised as a telephone answering machine.
During their subsequent celebration party, Whistler, Mother, and Carl investigate the box, finding it capable of breaking the encryption of nearly every computer system.
Martin works out that "Setec Astronomy" is an anagram of "too many secrets", and issues a lockdown until they can deliver the box the next day.
Martin hands the box to the NSA officers, but quickly leaves after Crease discovers that Janek was killed the night before.
His friend, Gregor in the Russian consulate, confirms that the officers were rogue agents, and that Janek was working for the NSA.
Before Gregor can elaborate further, fake FBI agents kill him and kidnap Martin, taking him to a remote location where he's reunited with Cosmo, who Martin thought had died in prison.
While imprisoned, Cosmo developed ties with organized crime, who recognized his talents and later installed him as their money launderer and paymaster.
He explains his plan to use Janek's box to destabilize the world economy, and offers Martin the chance to join him.
Martin refuses, whereupon Cosmo uses the box to break into the FBI and connect Martin's current identity with his former name. Cosmo has Martin knocked out and taken back to the city.
Martin and the team relocate to Liz's apartment. They contact NSA agent Abbott, who wants the box but cannot offer assistance until it is in Martin's possession.
Whistler analyzes the sounds that Martin heard during his kidnapping, and is able to identify the geographic area where Martin was taken. A toy company at that location is a front for Cosmo's operation.
They track down Werner Brandes, an employee whose office is next to Cosmo's. They set Liz up on a fake computer date with Brandes to obtain his keycard and vocal recognition codes, while the others identify other security features of Cosmo's office.
George Henry Kingsley selbst hielt sich selten zu Hause auf; als Leibarzt begleitete er häufig meist adlige Dienstherren u.
Eine Schule besuchte sie nie; die einzige formale Bildung, die ihr Vater ihr finanzierte, war privater Deutschunterricht, damit sie ihn bei seinen hobbyethnologischen Studien unterstützen konnte.
Die Familie zog nach Cambridge. Im Abstand von sechs Wochen verstarben im Frühjahr zunächst Kingsleys Vater und dann ihre Mutter.
Kingsley, die nun erstmals sowohl frei von familiärer Verantwortung als auch ohne Aufgabe war, entschloss sich bald darauf, auf Reisen zu gehen.
Motiviert durch ihre Lektüre entschied sie sich für Westafrika; eine erste Probereise führte sie noch auf die Kanarischen Inseln.
Die erworbenen Fähigkeiten halfen ihr, einerseits ihre eigene Gesundheit zu bewahren, und andererseits konnte sie durch kleinere medizinische Hilfeleistungen Freundschaften und Anerkennung erwerben.
Kingsley startete im August von England aus mit einem Frachtschiff nach Afrika. Sie segelte darauf die Küste entlang über Freetown in Sierra Leone bis nach Angola.
Sie lebte dort bei Einheimischen, von denen sie unter anderem nützliche Fähigkeiten für ihre Reisen in den afrikanischen Dschungel lernte.
Ihre Berichte erregten Interesse und sie bauten Kontakte zum British Museum auf. The hut tax, Kingsley argued, offended African law.
But behind these initial objections lay her deeper objections to an interventionist policy in West Africa. The real cause of the rebellion was the 'reasonable dislike to being dispossessed alike of power and property in what they regard as their own country'.
While publicly sticking to her claim that the tax was the root cause of the disturbances, in private she admitted that it was 'merely the match to a train of gunpowder'.
By 'sticking severely to native law' however, other arguments would 'come by and by'. How can the influence of someone who operated in such a behind-the-scenes and informal way be measured?
Her prominent position on African affairs led the Colonial Secretary to write to her at this critical time. But he was reluctant to be seen to countenance the opinion of such a controversial figure.
He sought her advice, therefore, as covertly as possible. She responded in kind, marking all her letters to him 'Private' and 'Strictly Confidential' doubly underlined.
When Sir David Chalmers was sent out to Freetown as Special Commissioner to investigate the cause of the disturbances, Chamberlain first briefed him on Kingsley's views.
Governor Cardew of Sierra Leone paid her frequent visitors on his return to London, and the Acting-Governor Matthew Nathan, sent out in his place, zealously courted her friendship before his departure.
His reading on board ship from Liverpool to Sierra Leone was Mary Kingsley's second book, West African Studies. In this manner she was in touch with all those involved in policy-making around the hut tax.
As her political experience grew, her methods of politicking became more sophisticated, subtle and therefore hidden from subsequent history. Not wanting to appear as an one- woman opponent to the hut tax, she encouraged others to commit themselves to print.
Using her contacts with leading pressmen such as St Loe Strachey, editor of the Spectator and, Kingsley thought, a 'backstairs to Chamberlain, she introduced young journalists into print, most notably E.
Morel, correspondent for Pall Mall Gazette. She encouraged Holt to write to the papers, but warned him 'don't for goodness gracious sake let the mention of me occur'.
As her contacts grew, she increasingly relied on these methods. I get more and more fond of doing things this way.
It leaves me a free hand to fight with'. To St Loe Strachey she wrote, 'In the seclusion of private life, in the gentle course of private friendship, I shall do my best in language worse than you have ever heard from me, to weld my men together and I'll fight to the last shot in my locker against the existing system'.
Soon the Colonial Office christened her 'the most dangerous person on the other side'. Her book, West African Studies, published in early , contained a strong attack on the Crown Colony system.
She described its system of government as a waste of life and money and a destroyer of African social organisations on which peace and prosperity depended.
In its place she drew up an Alternative Plan'. This was innovative firstly, in giving governmental and administrative control to European trading interests in West Africa embodied in a Grand Council who appointed a Governor General of West Africa, and secondly by officially incorporating African opinion - filtered through a council of chiefs - into the administrative network.
But although the Alternative Plan' was presented as a new option for British control of West Africa, in fact it looked back to a former era rather than forward to a new one.
The informal economic ties which Kingsley hoped would form the basis of British imperialism were central to this plan, as was their implementation by a European trading class.
The failure of this scheme would depend not only on the impracticality of re-establishing an informal empire in a time of increasing European intervention in West Africa, but also the reluctance of British trading interests to take on the added responsibilities of government.
British traders also wanted a non-trading European administrative class to run West African affairs and protect their markets from European and African rivals.
While on the public platform Kingsley appeared as the professional politician, in private she felt more and more drawn to the Africa she had left behind.
While maintaining a professional facade of feminine conformity, in the privacy of her Kensington home she decorated her rooms with souvenirs from her journeys - enormous wooden drums and a yard-high nail fetish - and jangled about in her African bangles.
To a childhood friend she wrote of the stresses of her two personalities, the public politician and the private African: The majority of people I shrink from, I don't like them, I don't understand them and they most distinctly don't understand me.
I cannot be a bush-man and a drawing-roomer. Would to Allah I was in West Africa now, with a climate that suited me and a people who understood me, and who I could understand.
She longed to return to 'skylark' in West Africa and experience a freedom 'this smug, self-satisfied, sanctimonious, lazy, Times-believing England' could never give.
Her identity with the African had been strong and heartfelt since her return from West Africa. Emotional revelations of this personal sympathy to close friends found more public expression in the use of terms usually reserved for non-European peoples to describe her own experience.
Calling herself a savage and a 'member of the tribe of women', she would even describe herself as 'an African'. She compared her beliefs to those of Africans.
This identity was also an expression of her own philosophy of polygenesism and separate development.
She returned to Africa yet again in December 23, with more support and supplies from England, as well as increased self-assurance in her work.
She longed to study " cannibal " people and their traditional religious practices, commonly referred to as " fetish " during the Victorian Era.
In April, she became acquainted with Scottish missionary Mary Slessor , another European woman living among native African populations with little company and no husband.
It was during her meeting with Slessor that Kingsley first became aware of the custom of twin killing, a custom which Slessor was determined to stop.
The native people believed that one of the twins was the offspring of the devil who had secretly mated with the mother and since the innocent child was impossible to distinguish, both were killed and the mother was often killed as well for attracting the devil to impregnate her.
Kingsley arrived at Slessor's residence shortly after she had taken in a recent mother of twins and her surviving child. She moored her boat at Donguila.
When she returned home in November , Kingsley was greeted by journalists eager to interview her. The reports that were drummed up about her voyage, however, were most upsetting, as the papers portrayed her as a " New Woman ," an image which she did not embrace.
Kingsley distanced herself from any feminist movement claims, arguing that women's suffrage was "a minor question; while there was a most vital section of men disenfranchised women could wait".
Over the next three years, she toured England, giving lectures about life in Africa to a wide array of audiences. She was the first woman to address the Liverpool and Manchester chambers of commerce.
Mary Kingsley upset the Church of England when she criticised missionaries for attempting to convert the people of Africa and corrupt their religions.
In this regard, she discussed many aspects of African life that were shocking to English people, including polygamy , which, she argued was practiced out of necessity.
She knew that the typical African wives had too many tasks to manage alone. Missionaries in Africa often required converted men to abandon all but one of their wives, leaving the other women and children without the support of a husband —thus creating immense social and economic problems.
Kingsley's beliefs about cultural and economic imperialism are complex and widely debated by scholars today.
Though, on the one hand, she regarded African people and cultures as those who needed protection and preservation,  she also believed in the necessity of British economic and technological influence and in indirect rule , insisting that there was some work in West Africa that had to be completed by white men.
Kingsley wrote two books about her experiences: Travels in West Africa ,  which was an immediate best-seller, and West African Studies , both of which gained her respect and prestige within the scholarly community.
Some newspapers, however, such as the Times under colonial editor Flora Shaw , refused to publish reviews of her works.
Though some argue this is likely on the grounds that her beliefs countered the imperialistic intentions of the British Empire and the notion that Africans were inferior peoples, this is unlikely to explain her sometimes unfavorable reception, because she did support British traders and British indirect rule in Africa,.
The notable success of Travels in West Africa was due in no small part to the vigour and droll humour of writing, that, in the guise of a ripping yarn, never wavers from its true purpose — to complete the work her father had left undone.
Of her method she said: "It is merely that I have the power of bringing out in my fellow-creatures, white or black, their virtues, in a way honourable to them and fortunate for me.
My reason for taking up this study was a desire to complete a great book my father, George Kingsley, had left at his death unfinished.
After the outbreak of the Second Boer War , Kingsley travelled to Cape Town on the SS Moor in March ,  and volunteered as a nurse.
She was stationed at Simon's Town hospital, where she treated Boer prisoners of war. After contributing her services to the ill for about two months, she developed symptoms of typhoid and died on 3 June She asked to be left to die alone, saying she did not wish anyone to see her in her weakness.
Animals she said, went away to die alone. A party of West Yorkshires, with band before them, drew the coffin from the hospital on a gun carriage to the pier … Torpedo Boat No.
Kingsley's tales and opinions of life in Africa helped draw attention to British imperial agendas abroad and the native customs of African people that were previously little discussed and misunderstood by the European people.
The Fair Commerce Party formed soon after her death, pressuring for improved conditions for the natives of British colonies.
Various reform associations were formed in her honour and helped facilitate governmental change. The Liverpool School of Tropical Medicine founded an honorary medal in her name.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. English ethnographer, scientific writer and explorer. This article's lead section may be too short to adequately summarize its key points.
Please consider expanding the lead to provide an accessible overview of all important aspects of the article. December